Booth, Sara Elizabeth and Van Helden, Albert, "The virgin and the telescope: The moons of Cigoli and Galileo," Science in Context, 14 (2001), pp. 193-2216.

 In 1612, Lodovico Cigoli completed a fresco in the Pauline chapel of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome depicting Apocalypse 12: “A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet.” He showed the crescent Moon with spots, as his friend Galileo had observed with the newly invented telescope. Considerations of the orthodox view of the perfect Moon as held by philosophers have led historians to ask why this clearly imperfect Moon in a religious painting raised no eyebrows. We argue that when considered in the context of biblical interpretation and the rhetoric of the Counter-Reformation, the imperfect Moon under the woman's feet was entirely consistent with traditional interpretations of Apocalypse 12.

Chelminski, Rudy, "Unearthing Athens' underworld. Throughout the decade-long construction of the city's new metro,

archaeologists have found a trove of treasures," Smithsonian, November 2002.

The subway, with 19 stations and 11 miles of lines, was finished in time for the 2004 Olympics. "Some of the stations could pass for mini-museums, with their displays of ancient statuary, gravestones, amphorae, oil lamps, vases and other vestiges of everyday life thousands of years ago." So look around when you are in the stations.

Guerraggio, Angelo, and Pietro Nastasi, Italian Mathematics between the Two World Wars (2005).  Science Networks Historical Studies, volume 29.  Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. You'll get annoyed at the lack of editing.  Not available via NYConnect.



Kline, Morris, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times, Oxford University Press, ISBN-13: 978-0195061352. This was originally published in a single volume, but is now available in three. Only volume 1 interests us.



Panofsky, Erwin, Galileo as a Critic of the Arts. Review in the Art Bulletin by Wolfgang Lotz.



Rohter, Larry, "Science vs. zealots, 1,500 years ago," New York Times, May 23, 2010, Arts and Leisure section, pp. 12, 15.

Review of a movie about Hypatia.


Simms, D. L., "The Trail for Archimedes's Tomb," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 53 (1990), pp. 281-286. Available via JSTOR.


Trapp, J. B., "Archimedes's Tomb and the Artists: A Postscript," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 53 (1990), pp. 286-288. Available via JSTOR.